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Born in the Qashqai Tribal Confederation and in the household of Mahmoud Khan Kalantar from the clan of Bahmanbeiglou and the Amaleh Tribe, Mohammad Bahmanbeigi began his life in 1921 and in a tent between Lar and Firuzabad during the migration of his tribe. He did not see or hear anything but gunshots and horse neighing when he was born. He spent his childhood living in Larestan in winter and Semirom in summer and did not spend even one single night in town or a normal town house. He was taught literacy by his family's private secretary, Mirza Javad when he was a child. "My father hosted a stranger man from Shahr Reza, Esfahan and that man taught me and my sister basic things" he writes.

In 1929 and 1930 the Qashqai Tribe revolts against the central government and Mahmoud Khan Kalantar (Bahmanbeigi's father)  goes into exile in Tehran with 20 other seniors of the tribe to join the tribe leader, Solat-al-Dowleh Qashqai, under the monitor of the government. A year later, when Mohammad is 11, he moves to Tehran with his mother to join his exiled father. He attends Tehran Islamic School – Madrasa- and becomes the top student.

" I was the only one happy and joyous in the family…I studied day and night and skipped grades…I was the first Qashqai kid to become the top student in elementary school…our exile lasted for 11 tough years. We were really close to begging for money on the street. The police was guarding for beggars…life was rough in Tehran. We did not have any access to our belongings and could not afford to rent a place. We were a couple of large tribal families living in the margin of the city with other needy Tehrani families and during the time that the channel in the north of Tehran was not filled yet, lived just outside Darvazeh Dowlat…our parents might be guilty. They were certainly guilty but we weren't. Our crime was being born in the time of Reza Shah and in a Qashghai tribe. We were born in the wrong place and the wrong time...to me poverty was a small suffering, the bigger was hiding the poverty."

Bahmanbeigi finished the tenth grade in a high school in Mathematics-Science  in Tehran and then forced to continue the eleventh grade in Shiraz. After school started, he was suspected because of his exiled father but manages to continue his studies in a different high school and this time in Literature. There, he got to know Dr. Mehdi Hamidi, his writing teacher, who encouraged him to start writing. The next year, he is forced once again to continue school in Tehran.

In 1939, after graduating from high school (Dar-al-Funoon), he enters the Department of Law of Tehran University and during his freshman year writes an impassioned preface to his professor's –Dr. Hamidi- book of poems. In June 1942 he graduates from Tehran University with a degree in Law.

After returning to his tribe he is assigned as the assistant to the new tribal leader, Naser Khan Qashqai. Thanks to his natural gifts and familiarity with German, English, and French languages, he contributes to the talks between Naser Khan and foreigners. Qashgaies who have always been in tension with the British, cooperated with the Germans in WW2 with Bahmanbeigi as their translator.

He is reproached by some relatives saying that "you have a university degree; you must go back to city and progress". The false temptations of this ambiguous word, progress, lured him back to Tehran. He was offered two positions in the Ministry of Justice as the assistant prosecutor in the cities of Dezfool and Saveh which were rejected by him since he intended to follow other paths toward progress! After a great deal of efforts, he eventually found a job in a crowded Meli Bank and started "adding and subtracting people's account figures". After two years, he suddenly left his position, promotion, and progress behind and returned to his tribe.

His strong internal drive to literate the tribe was the main reason he quit his job. For five year he did nothing but riding every square foot of the Province of Fars on his horse from the nomads' winter settlement (near the City of Esfahan) to their summer settlement (in Larestan area).

"I was in my tribe. Having escaped from the city uproar, I sought refuge to mountains and dessert though I could not bear living in the paradise. I was tempted to set off on another journey for I preferred anxiety of escaping to the serenity of staying…my life is a series of those anxieties and serenities though I am more pleased with escaping since I believe that sometimes escaping needs more courage and bravery. When cruelties are threatening you and you cannot afford to face them, escaping is the last resort."

After a while, the bitter memories of city life and the angst of tribe life, made him to go overseas and after a lot of difficulties he reaches the US and stayed there for a year. He gets tired of living in the US and infected of "tribe malady" and so escapes to his tribe to do something great…

"I was suffering from tribe malady. This sickness was different from others. It had no pain and yet was more painful than any other pain. My problem was from the within and yet doctors were checking my outside and since they failed to find anything, they took out my swollen tonsil."

In 1945 he publishes "Orf o ʿādat dar ʿašāyer-e Fārs" (A Monograph on the Social Habits of Nomads) in which he describes the situation of Fars nomads and proposed a solution to their issues:

"There is no doubt that the very existence of these semi-independent, primitive, and armed communities are intolerable, intrusive, and threatening to the central power of the country. However, I believe that the power should not face them with hostility and cruelty and cause bloodshed, destruction, and fratricide. These poor, hungry, and naïve people deserve education and sympathy not war and conflict."

After this book, he was attended by Sokhan Magazine and a number of intellectuals and writers such as Sadegh Hedayat, Mojtaba Minovi, Parviz Khanlari, Karim Keshvarz, and Davoud Norouzi. He managed to establish a reputation for himself and his book was translated to French by a translator who had worked on Sadegh Hedayat's books. The following years passed with his silence and he just published some of his writings in some magazines anonymously or under his pen name including Iran-e-Ma (Our Iran) whose chief editor was Jahangir Tafazoli.

"A strong desire from within didn’t leave me in peace…thinking about educating the children of the tribe never left me alone…my belief has been to extend and develop literacy and knowledge. In my mind, literacy was the main solution but the general opinion of those in charge was that until tribes migrated and lacked fixed settlements, they could not enjoy education. They considered the complicated issue of settling nomads easy but the simple issue of education difficult".

In 1951, He started the first nomadic mobile school for his family and relatives in his traditional guest tent. Managing this small school and transferring it alongside the migrating tribes provided valuable experience for him. "I realized that I can teach them for 8 months during summer and winter." Bahmanbeigi pursues this idea through the Ministry of Education (Former Ministry of Culture), it gets refused. He negotiates with the administrator of Truman's Point Four Program (US economic operation team) and then their cultural advisor. They agree to provide tents and other educational accessories provided that Bahmanbeigi recruits the teachers and provide their payments.

"I returned to the tribe drained and worn-out by bargaining, disappointed by the Ministry of Education, and after a useless journey overseas. Had a new plan in my head and this time, instead of the state, I sought the help of people. With the generosity of seniors and the perseverance of semi-literate youth, I started the first mobile elementary schools in a tent."

He seeks the tribe senior's and influential figures' help and eventually convinces 117 of them to assist him with his plan. The first group of teachers is selected from the literate members of the tribe and the villagers living on the migration route of nomads.

"I was the manager of a small and mobile cultural system. I had no expertise in education and never experienced advanced or regular teacher training. My teachers were not familiar with teaching methods too. However, passion outweighed all these shortages for passion has the power to break hard stones and flow streams."

In 1951 the implementation of first 7-year national development plan starts without any mention of the nomadic societies or their special economy.

In 1952, after his non-stop perseverance, Bahmanbeigi manages to persuade the Ministry of Culture to pass the Nomadic Education Program. Dr. Karim Fatemi , The General Director of Fars Office of Culture, plays an important role in this accomplishment. Article 4 of this act emphasizes that "a monetary system must be established through which the nomadic people can finance the payment of teachers". However, because of the haste on the Fars Office of Culture's side, the act is not enforced until the time that it is thoroughly postponed due to the 1953 turmoil (28 Mordad Coup). The sympathy of some Qashqai seniors for Mohammad Mosadegh aslo worsens the situation.

The majority of the teachers trained to teach in nomadic schools (especially those from villages), refused to work due to political instabilities. Point Four Program was also closed and left the country. Droughts, financial limitations of nomads, and the dissatisfaction of nomads to finance teachers' payment add to the difficulties. Teachers' payments are delayed and continuing the program deems impossible.

Bahmanbeigi's wisdom, perseverance, and selflessness works and barriers are conquered one by one. In 1955, Bahmanbeigi, With the support of Dr. Karim Fatemi, organizes a team of officials from the Ministry of Education to be sent in order to observe the nomadic schools which is considerably effective to the point that the ministry agrees to fund the salary of teachers provided that Bahmanbeigi also goes under the employment of the Ministry of Education. After 12 years of hard efforts, Bahman beigi is employed by the government as official rank 3. After a while the Nomadic Education Center turns into an office and then to Iran Nomadic Education Administration with the headquarters in Shiraz. From that time on, Bahmanbeigi's program goes beyond southern parts of Iran to all nomadic territories and tribes of the country.

"I was working passionately; feeling satisfied I had been lucky to serve the tribal people as it was in my power. The kids were bright and the teachers selfless. They were answering my efforts intelligently and in a manly manner. What I have done was novel and new. As soon as was I about to get tired, set out to the mountains and desert and got refreshed seeing schools and examining the kids".

The act of Nomadic Education was passed in the 896th session of the Supreme Culture Council in 5 articles. The statute and program of Nomadic Teacher Training Center was passed in their 943rd session. In 1956, the Shiraz Council of Culture sets regulations exclusive to nomadic elementary schools so that their regulations are in accordance to those of national elementary schools. Starting and finishing schools according to tribal lifestyle, omission of age for 4 years, disregarding the lack of birth certificate, and two annual testing in nomadic schools were the highlights of these regulations.

The first Nomadic Teacher Training Center opens in 1957 and after 22 periods of the program a number of 9000 teachers are trained and start work in the country nomadic regions. To encourage girls and their families, Bahmanbeigi sends his own daughter to this center and she becomes a teacher. Therefore, in 1964, 6 nomadic girls enter the center for the first time.

"All national and international education trainers and experts with various ideas praised us and admired what we achieved. Being certain of the correctness of what we were doing, the administrators of Plan and Budget Organization started being generous and helped me."

In 1966, the number of nomadic students reached 18000 and in 1967, 24000 nomadic students were studying at 550 facilities. From this huge number, Bahmanbeigi selected 7 poor and yet gifted students to take to his own home and send them to high school. Their progress was incredible but the number did not satisfy Bahmanbeigi.

1n 1966, the first nomadic boarding high school was established in Shiraz with a number of 40 students from different tribes. By improving the infrastructures and admitting more students, this high school expands the activities and turns into one of the best high schools of the country with highly-equipped physics, chemistry, Language, and biology laboratories as well as electronics, auto-mechanics, photography, painting, and carpentry workshops. All the students of their six periods prior to the 1979 Revolution successfully get their high school diplomas and 97% of them enter university. During the years of Iran-Iraq war, by bestowing over a hundred martyrs and freed war prisoners they lead the defense of the country.

With his perseverance and in the fourth National Development Program before the Revolution, 1211 new classrooms open in nomadic regions of Fars, Kohgiluye and Boyer-Ahmad, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari, Lorestan, Kurdistan, Arasbaran, and Shahsavan. In 1971 the first Girls' Vocational Training Center (carpeting) is founded. After two years the Boys' Vocational Training Center and Technical College are established. Ab Barik Complex is also opened beside Shiraz Refinery in this year which includes Nomadic Teacher Training Center, Technical College, Boys' Vocational Training Center, sports facilities, middle school, and equipped garages and warehoused. During these years and with the cooperation of Ministry of Health, the first Nomadic Midwife Training center opens, and in 1975 he establishes the rural clinician and veterinarian training center is founded.

In 1973, his innovations, method, and educational techniques are praised by international societies. Due to his efforts and endeavors in teaching literacy to thousands of Turk, Lor, Kurd, Balooch, Arab, and Turkmen children, attracting girls to his mobile schools, and founding the first Nomadic Teacher Training Center, Bahmanbeigi is honorably mentioned by the UNESCO Nadezhda K. Krupskaya Literacy Prize.

His reputation grows after these accomplishments and considerable progresses to the point that he is proposed as a minister; however he rejects the offer as well as the offer of education bursaries from international organization since he prefers educating nomadic children to any other thing. After several month of comparative studies and field research,Tehran University's Institute of Psychology reports that nomadic teachers in all subjects and courses are higher than rural teachers and Sepah Danesh by far. There was a reason when Bahmanbeigi always said that his colleagues are men of commitment and persevere.

In 197, with the cooperation of UNICEF and the The Institute for Intellectual Development of Children and Young Adults (Kanoon Parvaresh), mobile libraries and movie theaters are opened followed by mobile nomadic stores and, therefore, the chain of educational and service units are completed by Bahmanbeigi.

In 1978, the total number of literate nomads exceeds 500 thousand. Thousands of tribal techers, hundreds of thousands of students, and over one thousand medical doctors, dentists, veterinarians, judges, engineers, professors, sociologists, artists, high school teachers, and officers were the outcome of the commitment and perseverance that Bahmanbeigi always mentioned.

After the Islamic Revolution, Bahmanbeigi lived in silence for almost 10 years and had a life in terror for a couple of years. Then, his passion for writing revives and he decides to write about the experiences gained from educating nomads. He published four books in this period; The first book , " Bokharaye Man Iele Man" (Bokhara My Tribe) containing 19 documentary subjects, was published in 3000 copies and quickly reached its next editions. After that in 1995, 2000, and 2007 he published 3 more books titled "Agar Gharghaj Nabood" (If It Weren’t for Gharaghaj) in 17 subjects and 5000 copies, "May I Vow to your Sacred Heart" in 22 subjects and 5000 copies, and "Tala-ye-Shahamat" (Roughly translated as "The Gold of Courage")in 19 subjects and 3000 copies all of which republished several times. Also, since he was requested many times, he wrote a new preface to his 1945 book, "Orf o ʿādat dar ʿašāyer-e Fārs" (A Monograph on social Habits of Nomads), and published it in 3000 copies. In 2010, Navid Shiraz Publication, republished a complete series of Bahmanbeigi' books as a "treasured series" which was a sagacious measure which contributed to the culture of the population.

During the years after his return to Shiraz (after the period he was bound to reside in Teharn), his pupils and protégés held several ceremonies in Tehran, Shiraz, Esfahan, Semirom, etc. in his honor on the Teacher's Day with the presence of Bahmanbeigi where they had a chance to talk with their mentor.  

In April 2003 a ceremony was held by Khamseh Tribe to honor Bahmanbeigi and his passionate efforts in Fasa, Fars with his presence. In October 2005, Society for the Appreciation of Cultural works and Dignitaries honored Bahmanbeigi and dedicated a book "Biography and Cultural-Scientific Services" to him. On May 1 2010, after dedicating his whole life to promote culture and education, the great teacher of tribe passed away and buried in Nomadic Behesht-e-Zahra after several days of hesitation.

 

  

                                 

 

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